Stomatologija je i nauka i umetnost lečenja, obojena etičkim ponašanjem i primenom univerzalnih etičkih načela.

Stomatologija je kroz vekove evoluirala, od jednostavne čačkalice za zube do modernih dostignuća savremene tehnologije i umetnosti vraćanja lepote osmeha.

Prvi dokumentovani dokazi o primeni današnjih tehnika su 9000 godina stari i datiraju iz doba neolita. U arheološkom nalazištu Mehrgarh u Palestini su pronađeni zubi na kojima se vide tragovi rada bušilice. Kroz istoriju su ljudi koristili različite načine ispunjavanja šupljina na zubima, te su pronađeni zubi sa ispunama od plemenitih metalia, parčića drveta, školjke, dragog kamenja itd. Početkom 19. veka se javlja mešavina žive i različitih metala kao jedan od materijala za ispunu i time počinje era dentalnog amalgama. Giovanni d’ Arcoli prvi predlaže primenu tankih folija za ispune. Početkom 1960-ih se u stomatologiju uvode i smole kao material za ispune čime se javlja alternativa dentalnom amalgamu, a to su bile prve kompozitne ispune.

Istorijski tok razvoja stomatologije izgleda ovako:

5000. P.N.E.—Sumerski tekst opisuje “zubne crve” kao uzročnike kvarenja zuba.

2600. P.N.E.— Hesy-Re, u egipatskim spisima se pominje kao prvi “stomatolog”. Natpisi u njegovoj grobnici uključuju i rečenicu “najveći među onima koji se bave zubima i najveći među lekarima.”  Ovo je prvo pominjanje osobe koja se definiše kao “stomatolog”.

1700.-1550. P.N.E.—Egipatski spisi, Ebers Papyrus, pominju neke zubne bolesti i uzroke zubobolje.

 

Četkica za zube napravljena od grančice drveta

 

500.-300. P.N.E.—Hipokrat i Aristotel pišu o stomatologiji, uključujući šemu nicanja zuba, lečenje zuba i desni, vađenje zuba forcepsom, i upotrebu žice za učvršćivanje rasklimanih zuba i polomljenih vilica..

100. P.N.E.—Celsus, rimski pisac o medicini, naširoko piše o značaju zubne higijene, učvršćivanju rasklimanih zuba, tretmanima zubobolje i fraktura vilice.

166.-201. N.E.— Etrurci praktikuju zubnu protetiku koristeći zlatne krunice i mostove.

500.-1000.— Tokom ranog srednjeg veka medicinom i stomatologijom bave se monasi, najobrazovaniji ljudi tog vremena.

700.—Medicinski tekst u Kini pominje upotrebu “srebrne paste”, vrste amalgama.

 

Zubna ispuna od žada koju su koristile Maje u prvom veku nove ere

1130.-1163.—Nekoliko Papskih edikta zabranjuje monasima da se bave “puštanjem krvi” i vađenjem zuba. Berberi su do tada često pomagali monasima u obavljanju operacija, jer su često dolazili u manastire da bi monasima brijali glave, a i njihovi alati – oštri noževi i žileti su bili veoma prikladni za “hirurgiju”. Nakon zabrane monasima, berberi su nastavili da se bave ovim medicinskim disciplinama.

1210.—Udruženje berbera osnovano je u Francuskoj.  Berberi su evoluirali u dve grupe: hirurge koji su bili obučeni da obavljaju komplikovane hirurške zahvate i berbere-hirurge, koji su obavljali jednostavnije rutinske zahvate: brijanje, puštanje krvi i vađenje zuba.

1400.—Nekoliko kraljevskih dekreta zabranjuje berberima iz druge pomenute grupe da obavljaju komplikovane hirurške zahvate osim puštanja krvi i vađenja zuba.

1530.—Mala medicinska knjiga o svim vrstama bolesti zuba (Artzney Buchlein), prva je knjiga potpuno posvećena stomatologiji objavljena je u Nemačkoj.  Pokriva praktične teme kao što su oralna higijena, vađenje zuba, bušenje zuba i postavljanje zlatnih zubnih ispuna.

1575.—U Francuskoj Ambrose Pare, poznat kao otac hirurgije, objavljuje Kompletne radove. Oni uključuju praktične informacije o stomatologiji kao što su vađenje zuba, lečenje zuba i preloma vilice.

1723.—Pierre Fauchard, a francuski hirurg objavljuje Le Chirurgien Dentiste – Stomatološku hirurgiju.  On se smatra ocem moderne stomatologije jer je njegova knjiga prva opisala sveobuhvatni sistem stomatološke prakse uključujući osnove oralne anatomije i funkcija, stomatološke tehnike i konstrukciju proteza..

1746.—Claude Mouton predlaže da se zlatne krunice prebojavaju belom bojom zbog boljeg estetskog izgleda.

1789.—Francuz Nicolas Dubois de Chemant dobija prvi patent za porcelanske zube.

 

Set proteza napravljenih za Džordža Vašingtona 1798.

 

1825.—Samuel Stockton započinje prvu komercijalnu radionicu za proizvodnju porcelanskih zuba.

Porcelanski zubi

1839.—Počinje da izlazi American Journal of Dental Science, prvi stomatološki žurnal u svetu.

1839.—Charles Goodyear pronalazač procesa vulkanizacije (očvršćavanja gume) proizveo je vulkanit, jeftin materijal koji je veoma pogodan za modeliranje prema obliku vilice. On počinje da se koristi u stomatologiji kao izvrsna podloga za veštačke zube.

1840.—Horace Hayden and Chapin Harris osnovali su prvu školu stomatologije u svetu,  Baltimorski koledž stomatološke hirurgije

1840.—American Society of Dental Surgeons (Američko udruženje stomatoloških hirurga) prvo je stomatološko udruženje u svetu.

1844.—Horace Wells, stomatolog iz Konetikata počinje da primenjuje kao anesteziju pri stomatološkim procedurama.

1866.—Lucy Beaman Hobbs diplomirala je na koledžu u Ohaju i postala prva žena koja je dobila diplomu doktora stomatologije.

 

1871. prva električna stomatološka bušilica

1880.—Savitljiva metalna tuba donosi revoluciju u proizvodnji i prodaji paste za zube.

1890.—Willoughby Miller američki stomatolog u Nemačkoj u svojoj knjizi Micro-Organisms of the Human Mouth (Mikroorganizmi u ljudskim ustima) navodi mikroorganizme kao uzročnike karijesa, što dovodi do prave ekspanzije pokreta za promociju oralne higijene, redovnog pranja zuba i čišćenja zubnim koncem

1895.—Wilhelm Roentgen, Nemački fizičar otkriva x-zrake (rentgenske zrake), a 1896. istaknuti američki stomatolog C. Edmond Kells pravi prvi zubni rentgenski snimak žive osobe u Americi.

1900.—Osnovano je Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) Internacionalno udruženje stomatologa.

1937.—Alvin Strock vrši implantaciju prvog zubnog implanta koji se “ušrafljuje” u vilicu -Vitalinum prvi biokompatibilni materijal

1938.—Četkica za zube sa sintetičkim čekinjama od najlona se pojavljuje na tržištu.

1945.—Počinje doba fluorizacije vode u vodovodu.

1950.—Na tržištu se pojavljuju prve paste za zube sa fluoridima.

1960.—Laseri ulaze u upotrebu u stomatologiji.

1980.—Per-Ingvar Branemark opisuje tehnike oseointegracije-srastanja implanta u kost.

Zubni implant

 

1989.—Pojavljuju se prvi proizvodi za izbeljivanje zuba za kućnu upotrebu.

1990.—Uvode se novi materijali u boji zuba i sve je veća upotreba izbeljivača zuba, zubnih navlaka i zubnih implanta, čime započinje era estetske stomatologije, koja se kao stomatološka disciplina veoma približila umetnosti.

SPONZOR TEKSTA: NS Dental Studio

 

Izvori:

ADA.org

Wikipedia

Dentistry is both science and skill and art of treatment, characterized by ethical behavior and implementation of the universal ethical principles.

Dentistry has evolved from a simple toothpick to today’s state-of-the-art technology.

Dentistry history timeline looks like this:

5000 BC—A Sumerian text of this date describes “tooth worms” as the cause of dental decay.

2600 BC—Death of Hesy-Re, an Egyptian scribe, often called the first “dentist.” An inscription on his tomb includes the title “the greatest of those who deal with teeth, and of physicians.”  This is the earliest known reference to a person identified as a dental practitioner.

1700-1550 BC—An Egyptian text, the Ebers Papyrus, refers to diseases of the teeth and various toothache remedies.

 

Toothbrush fashioned from a tree branch

 

500-300 BC—Hippocrates and Aristotle write about dentistry, including the eruption pattern of teeth, treating decayed teeth and gum disease, extracting teeth with forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws.

100 BCCelsus, a Roman medical writer, writes extensively in his important compendium of medicine on oral hygiene, stabilization of loose teeth, and treatments for toothache, teething pain, and jaw fractures.

166-201 AD—The Etruscans practice dental prosthetics using gold crowns and fixed bridgework.

500-1000—During the Early Middle Ages in Europe medicine, surgery, and dentistry, are generally practiced by monks, the most educated people of the period

700—A medical text in China mentions the use of “silver paste,” a type of amalgam.

 Mayan jade inlay in an anterior tooth, circa A.D. 900

1130-1163—A series of Papal edicts prohibit monks from performing any type of surgery, bloodletting or tooth extraction.  Barbers often assisted monks in their surgical ministry because they visited monasteries to shave the heads of monks and the tools of the barber trade—sharp knives and razors—were useful for surgery. After the edicts, barbers assume the monks’ surgical duties: bloodletting, lancing abscesses, extracting teeth, etc.

1210—A Guild of Barbers is established in France.  Barbers eventually evolve into two groups: surgeons who were educated and trained to perform complex surgical operations; and lay barbers, or barber-surgeons, who performed more routine hygienic services including shaving, bleeding and tooth extraction.

1400s—A series of royal decrees in France prohibit lay barbers from practicing all surgical procedures except bleeding, cupping, leeching, and extracting teeth.

1530—The Little Medicinal Book for All Kinds of Diseases and Infirmities of the Teeth (Artzney Buchlein), the first book devoted entirely to dentistry, is published in Germany.  Written for barbers and surgeons who treat the mouth, it covers practical topics such as oral hygiene, tooth extraction, drilling teeth, and placement of gold fillings.

1575—In France Ambrose Pare, known as the Father of Surgery, publishes his Complete Works. This includes practical information about dentistry such as tooth extraction and the treatment of tooth decay and jaw fractures.

1723Pierre Fauchard, a French surgeon publishes The Surgeon Dentist, A Treatise on Teeth (Le Chirurgien Dentiste).  Fauchard is credited as being the Father of Modern Dentistry because his book was the first to describe a comprehensive system for the practice of dentistry including basic oral anatomy and function, operative and restorative techniques, and denture construction.

1746Claude Mouton describes a gold crown and post to be retained in the root canal. He also recommends white enameling for gold crowns for a more esthetic appearance.

1789—Frenchman Nicolas Dubois de Chemant receives the first patent for porcelain teeth

 

Set of dentures made for George Washington by John Greenwood, 1798

 

1825Samuel Stockton begins commercial manufacture of porcelain teeth. His S.S. White Dental Manufacturing Company establishes and dominates the dental supply market throughout the 19th century.

Porcelain teeth

1839—The American Journal of Dental Science, the world’s first dental journal, begins publication.

1839Charles Goodyear invents the vulcanization process for hardening rubber. The resulting Vulcanite, an inexpensive material easily molded to the mouth, makes an excellent base for false teeth, and is soon adopted for use by dentists. In 1864 the molding process for vulcanite dentures is patented, but the dental profession fights the onerous licensing fees for the next twenty-five years.

1840Horace Hayden and Chapin Harris establish the world’s first dental school, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, and originate the Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) degree. (The school merges with the University of Maryland School of Dentistry in 1923).

1840—The American Society of Dental Surgeons, the world’s first national dental organization, is founded. (The organization dissolves in 1856.)

1844Horace Wells, a Connecticut dentist, discovers that nitrous oxide can be used as an anesthesia and successfully uses it to conduct several extractions in his private practice. He conducts the first public demonstration of its use as an anesthetic in 1845 but the demonstration is generally considered a failure after the patient cries out during the operation. In 1846, another dentist (and a student of Wells), William Morton, takes credit for the discovery when he conducts the first successful public demonstration of the use of ether as an anesthesia for surgery. Crawford Long, a physician, later claims he used ether as an anesthetic in an operation as early as 1842, but he did not publish his work.

1866Lucy Beaman Hobbs graduates from the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, becoming the first woman to earn a dental degree.

 

1871 -The first electric dental engine, a self-contained motor and handpiece

1880s—The collapsible metal tube revolutionizes toothpaste manufacturing and marketing. Dentifrice had been available only in liquid or powder form, usually made by individual dentists, and sold in bottles, porcelain pots, or paper boxes. Tube toothpaste, in contrast, is mass-produced in factories, mass-marketed, and sold nation-wide. In twenty years, it becomes the norm.

1890Willoughby Miller an American dentist in Germany, notes the microbial basis of dental decay in his book Micro-Organisms of the Human Mouth. This generates an unprecedented interest in oral hygiene and starts a world-wide movement to promote regular toothbrushing and flossing.

1895Wilhelm Roentgen, a German physicist, discovers the x-ray. In 1896 prominent New Orleans dentist C. Edmond Kells takes the first dental x-ray of a living person in the U.S.

1900—Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) is formed.

1937Alvin Strock inserts the first Vitallium dental screw implant.  Vitallium, the first successful biocompatible implant metal, had been developed a year earlier by Charles Venable, an orthopedic surgeon.

1938—The nylon toothbrush, the first made with synthetic bristles, appears on the market.

1945—The water fluoridation era begins when the cities of Newburgh, New York, and Grand Rapids, Michigan, add sodium fluoride to their public water systems.

1950s—The first fluoride toothpastes are marketed.

1960s—Sit down, four-handed dentistry becomes popular in the U.S.  This technique improves productivity and shortens treatment time.

1960sLasers are developed and approved for soft tissue procedures.

1980sPer-Ingvar Branemark describes techniques for the osseointegration of dental implants.

Dental implant

 

1989—The first commercial home tooth bleaching product is marketed.

1990s—New tooth-colored restorative materials plus increased usage of bleaching, veneers, and implants inaugurate an era of esthetic dentistry – dentistry discipline very close to art.

ARTICLE SPONSORED BY:  NS Dental Studio

Sources:

ADA.org

Wikipedia




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