Pušenje, opasnost za zdravlje desni

Verovatno ste videli upozorenje na pakovanjima cigareta „ Prestanak pušenja, u velikoj meri smanjuje ozbiljne rizike za vaše zdravlje.“ Šta vam od bolesti pada na pamet vezano za pušenje? Rak pluća verovatno. Emfizem, možda?

Ali da li znate da je polovina parodontalnih bolesti kod pušača, uzrokovana pušenjem? Hronična (dugotrajna) oboljnja desni mogu da dovedu do gubitka zuba.

„ Studije su otkrile da upotreba duvana može biti jedan od najvećih faktora rizika u razvoju parodontopatije “ , Kaže doktor  Dejvid A. Albert, profesor  na stomatološkom fakultetu, univerziteta u Kolumbiji.

Parodontalna bolest je bakterijska infekcija. Ona uništava meka tkiva i koštane strukture, koje vezuju zube za vilične kosti. Bakterije se razvijaju u dentalnom plaku koji se formira na površini zuba, kao i u džepovima oko zuba.  Naše telo reakcijom na bakterije iz dentalnog plaka dovodi do uništavanja mekog tkiva i kostiju.

U ranm fazama bolesti, možda ćete primetiti da vaše desni krvare kada perete zube. Kako se infekcija pogoršava, vaše desni počinju da se povlače. Dolazi do stvaranja džepova (udubljenja) između zuba i desni, koji se vremenom produbljuju. Konačno, vaši zubi  se mogu klatiti, čak i ispasti.

Istraživanja su pokazala da pušači imaju više zubnog kamenca nego nepušači. Kamenac je idealno mesto za taloženje novog plaka. Pušenje takođe može dovesti do progresije već postojećeg oboljenja desni. Pušači imaju dublje džepove i ozbiljniji gubitak koštanog tkiva nego nepušači. U studijama je dokazano da pušači imaju čak tri do šest puta veća šanse da obole od parodontopatije. Gubitak koštanog tkiva je pet puta veći kod sadašnjih i bivših pušača nego kod ljudi koji su nepušači.

„ Pušači imaju manje krvarenje desni i crvenilo od drugih ljudi, čak iako su im desni zdrave“, kaže doktor Albert. To može dovesti do pogrešnog utiska da su desni zdrave, zato je veoma važno da pušači imaju redovne stomatološke preglede kojima će proveriti zdravlje svojh desni.

Ne samo da pušenje povećava šanse za oboljenje desni, već  čini teže lečenje već postojeće bolesti. Moguće je čak i odsustvo povoljog terapijskog efekta. To je zato što pušenje ometa lečenje u ustima. Jedna studija je pokazala, da pušači imaju dvostruko veću verovatnoću da izgube zube, pet godina nakon završetka lečenja od parodontopatije. U većini slučaja nehirurškog lečenja, kod pušača je primećeno manje poboljšanje nego kod nepušača. Pušači, takođe ne reaguju dobro na oralnohirurške intervencije. Ugradnja zubnih implanta, šesto može biti neuspešna kod pušača zbog lošeg obnavljanja kosti.

Krunice i mostovi izgledaju sjajno kada se postave u usta. Kod pušača ovaj izgled često može biti narušen, zbog pojave povlačenja desni i gubitka koštanog tkiva. Popularne estetske  porcelanske krune, neće lepo izgledati kod osoba koje puše.

Naučnici još uvek istraživaju, šta duvanski dim menja u tkivu usne duplje. Takodje je otkriveno da pušenje utiče na način kojim reaguje tkivo usne duplje na određene terapije.

„Smatra se da pušenje ometa normalan dotok krvi u tkivo desni“ istakao je doktor Albert, „to dovodi do usporenja procesa ozdravljenja, što čini lečenje nepredvidivo i često neuspešno.“

To nije samo dim cigarete koji doprinosi pojavi parodontopatije. Svi duvanski proizvodi mogu uticati na zdravlje desni. Ovo uključuje duvan za lulu, duvan za žvakanje.

Studije sprovedene na Templ Univerzitetu pokazao je ovaj rizik. Istraživanje je pokazalo da je 18 procenata pušača cigareta ili duvana iz lule, imalo oboljenje desni. „To je tri puta više nego nego kod nepušača,“ rekao je je dr Albert. Studija je objavljena u Časopisu o parodontologiji, u 2000. godini.

Stručnjaci navode da pušači lule imaju isti procenat gubitka zuba kao i pušači cigareta. Dim duvana može da izazove povlačenje desni. Ovo dovodi do gubljenja kosti i vlakana koje fiksiraju zube u vilici. Odvakavanje od pušenja, značajno smanjuje rizik za naše zdravlje. Nedavna studija je pokazala da su ljudi koji su ostavili pušenje pre 11 godina, imali otprilike sličan procenat oboljenja od parodontopatije, kao ljudi koji nisu pušili.

Čak, smanjenje broja cigareta dovodi do poboljšanja. Jedna studija je pokazala da osobe koje su pušile kutiju i po na dan, imaju i do šest puta veća šanse za pojavu parodontopatije od nepušača. Oni koji su pušili manje od pola kutije cigareta na dan imali su samo tri puta veći rizik za pojavu oboljenja.

„Ordinacija je dobro mesto za odvikavanje od pušenja“, ističe dr Albert. „Vaš zubar vam može pokazati  kakvi su efekti pušenja na usta i zube. Ona ili on vam mogu pomoći da odredite datum prestanka pušenja i pružiti vam savete, koji lekovi vam mogu pomoći u odvikavanju od pušenja, kao što su nikotinski flasteri i žvakaća guma.“

Rak usta

Duvan kao najveća pretnja vašem oralnom zdravlju može biti veza za nastanak oralnog kancera. American Cancer Society navodi:

-Oko 90% ljudi sa rakom usta ili nekim vrstama raka grla su koristili duvan. Prizik od pojave raka se povećava ako pušite ili žvaćete duvan duže vreme.

-Pušači 6 puta češće obolevaju od raka nego nepušači.

-Oko 37% pacijenata koji su nastavili da puše posle tretmana raka, oboleli su po drugi put od raka usta ili grla. To se poredi sa svega 6 % pacijenata koji su prestali da puše.

-Duvanski dim cigarete ili lule može izazvati rak bilo gde u ustima ili u grlu. Takođe može izazvati rak dušnika, jednjaka, pluća, bubrega, mokraćne bešike i drugih organa. Pušenje lule može da dovede do pojave raka usana u predelu gde se usne dodiruju sa lulom.

-Pušenje je povezano sa nastankom raka obraza, desni i unutrašnje strane usana. Duvanski dim povećava rizik od ovih oboljenja skoro 50 puta.

Neuspeh ugradnje implantata

Zubni implantati mogu da zamene izgubljene zube kod pušača. Međutim, pušači treba da znaju da imaju povećan rizik od neuspešnosti ugradnje implanta.

„Istraživanja su otkrila da pacijenti koji puše imaju veće šanse za neuspeh terapije implantima“, ističe dr Albert.Pušači moraju biti svesni ove činjenice.

Pre nego što ugradite implante, razmislite i potražite pomoć u odvkavanju od pušenja.

Izvor: simplestepsdental.com

You’ve probably seen the warning on cigarette packages: “Quitting smoking now greatly reduces serious risks to your health.” What smoking-related diseases come to mind? Lung cancer, probably. Emphysema, maybe.

But did you know that half of periodontal (gum) disease in smokers is caused by smoking? Chronic (long-term) gum disease can lead to the loss of your teeth.

“Studies have found that tobacco use may be one of the biggest risk factors in the development of periodontal disease,” says David A. Albert, D.D.S., M.P.H. Dr. Albert is an associate professor at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine.

Periodontal (gum) disease is a bacterial infection. It destroys soft tissue and bone that anchor your teeth to your jawbones. Bacteria grow in the dental plaque that forms in the pockets around your teeth. Your body’s reaction to the plaque leads to the breakdown of soft tissue and bone.

In early stages of the disease, you may notice that your gums bleed when you brush or floss. As the infection worsens, your gums begin to break down. They pull away from your teeth, forming pockets. Later, the pockets between your teeth and gums deepen as more of the supporting structures are destroyed. Ultimately, your teeth may become loose and painful. They may even fall out.

Studies have shown that smokers have more calculus (tartar) than nonsmokers. This may be the result of a decreased flow of saliva. Calculus is the hardened form of plaque.

Smoking tobacco products can make gum disease get worse faster. Smokers have more severe bone loss and more deep pockets between their teeth and gums than nonsmokers. In studies, smokers were three to six times more likely to have gum destruction than nonsmokers. Severe bone loss was five times greater among current or former heavy smokers than among people who never smoked.

“Smokers have much less gum bleeding and redness than other people even though their mouths are not healthy,” Dr. Albert says. “This can lead to the false impression that the gums are healthy. It is therefore very important that tobacco smokers have regular dental exams to evaluate their gum health.”

Not only does smoking increase the chance that you will develop gum disease, it makes treatment much more difficult. And the treatment is less likely to succeed. That’s because smoking hinders healing in your mouth.

One study found that smokers were twice as likely as nonsmokers to lose teeth in the five years after completing periodontal treatment. In most studies of nonsurgical gum treatment (deep scaling), smokers improved less than nonsmokers. Smokers also don’t respond as well to oral surgery treatments. Dental implants are much more likely to fail in people who smoke, because of poor bone healing.

Crowns and bridges look great when first placed in the mouth. In smokers they often lose this beautiful appearance, especially as the gums recede and bone is lost. Popular cosmetic procedures, such as porcelain laminates, will not look good for a long time in a person who smokes.

Researchers still are studying just what smoke does to mouth tissue. It appears to interfere with basic functions that fight disease and promote healing. Researchers have found that smoking affects the way gum tissue responds to all types of treatment.

“It is believed that the chemicals contained in tobacco interfere with the flow of blood to the gums,” Dr. Albert says. “This leads to a slowdown in the healing process. It makes the treatment results less predictable and often unfavorable.”

It is not just cigarette smoke that contributes to periodontal disease, Dr. Albert says. All tobacco products can affect gum health. This includes pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco and cigars.

A study conducted at Temple University showed this risk. Researchers reported that 18% of former cigar or pipe smokers had moderate to severe gum disease. “This is three times the amount found in non-smokers,” Dr. Albert says. The study was published in the Journal of Periodontology in 2000.

Experts say pipe smokers have rates of tooth loss similar to those of cigarette smokers. Smokeless tobacco can cause the gums to recede. This increases the chance of losing the bone and fibers that hold teeth in place.

The only good news about smoking and oral health is that the Surgeon General’s warning holds true. Quitting now does greatly reduce serious risks to your health. A recent study reported that people who had quit smoking 11 years before had about the same rate of periodontal disease as people who never smoked.

Even reducing the amount you smoke seems to help. One study found that people who smoked more than a pack and a half per day were six times more likely to have periodontal disease than nonsmokers. Those who smoked less than a half pack per day had only three times the risk.

“The dental office is a good place to visit for help with quitting,” Dr. Albert says. “Your dentist can show you the effect of smoking on your mouth and teeth. She or he can help you set a quit date and provide you with advice on which medicines can help you quit, such as nicotine patches or gum.”

Mouth Cancer

Tobacco’s greatest threat to your health may be its link to oral cancer. The American Cancer Society reports that:

About 90% of people with mouth cancer and some types of throat cancer have used tobacco. The risk of developing these cancers increases as people smoke or chew more often or for a longer time.

Smokers are six times more likely than nonsmokers to develop these cancers.

  • About 37% of patients who continue to smoke after cancer treatment will develop second cancers of the mouth, throat or larynx. This compares with only 6% of those who stop smoking.
  • Tobacco smoke from cigarettes, cigars or pipes can cause cancers anywhere in the mouth or the part of the throat just behind the mouth. It also can cause cancers of the larynx, lungs, esophagus, kidneys, bladder and several other organs. Pipe smoking also can cause cancer in the area of the lips that contacts the pipe stem.
  • Smokeless tobacco has been linked to cancers of the cheek, gums and inner surface of the lips. Smokeless tobacco increases the risk of these cancers by nearly 50 times.
  • Dental implants can replace lost teeth in people who smoke. However, smokers should know they have an increased risk that the procedure will fail.

Dental Implant Failures

“Studies have consistently found that patients who smoke have more implant failures,” Dr. Albert says. Smokers who are considering getting a dental implant need to realize this risk, he says.

“Before getting implants, consider seeking counseling and support to help you quit smoking,” he says.

Source: simplestepsdental.com


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2017-11-25T18:26:36+00:00

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