Zadah iz usta je dah koji ima neprijatan miris. Ova pojava se stručno naziva halitosis. Bad breath is breath that has an unpleasant odor. It’s also known as halitosis. This odor can strike from time to time, or it can be long-lasting, depending on the cause. Millions of bacteria live in the mouth, particularly on the back of the tongue. In many people, they are the primary causes of bad breath. The mouth’s warm, moist conditions are ideal for the growth of these bacteria. Most bad breath is caused by something in the mouth.
Some types of bad breath are considered to be fairly normal. They usually are not health concerns. One example is „morning mouth.“ This occurs because of changes in your mouth while you sleep. During the day, saliva washes away decaying food and odors. The body makes less saliva at night. Your mouth becomes dry, and dead cells stick to your tongue and to the inside of your cheeks. When bacteria use these cells for food, they produce a foul odor.
In addition, bad breath can be caused by the following:
1. Poor dental hygiene — Infrequent or improper brushing and flossing, which allows bits of food to decay inside the mouth
2. Infections in the mouth — Periodontal (gum) disease
3. Respiratory tract infections — Throat, sinus or lung infections
4. External agents — Garlic, onions, coffee, cigarette smoking, chewing tobacco
5. Dry mouth (xerostomia) — Caused by salivary gland problems, medicines or „mouth breathing“
6. Systemic (bodywide) illnesses — Diabetes, liver disease, kidney disease, lung disease, sinus disease, reflux disease and others
7. Psychiatric illness — Some people may believe they have bad breath, but others do not notice it. This is referred to as „pseudohalitosis.“
You may not always know that you have bad breath. That’s because odor-detecting cells in the nose eventually get used to the smell. Other people may notice and react by recoiling as you speak.
A dentist or physician may notice bad breath during an office visit. Sometimes, the smell of the patient’s breath may suggest a likely cause for the problem. For example, „fruity“ breath may be a sign of uncontrolled diabetes. A urine-like smell, especially in a person who is at high risk of kidney disease, can sometimes indicate kidney failure.
Your dentist will review your medical history for conditions that can cause bad breath and for medicines that can cause dry mouth. Your dentist also will ask you about your diet, personal habits (smoking, chewing tobacco) and any symptoms. He or she also will ask who noticed the bad breath and when.
Your dentist will examine your teeth, gums, mouth and salivary glands. He or she also will feel your head and neck and will evaluate your breath when you exhale from your nose and from your mouth.
Your dentist may refer you to your family physician if a bodywide illness is the most likely cause. In severe cases of gum disease, your dentist may suggest that you see a periodontist (dentist who specializes in gum problems).
You will need diagnostic tests if the doctor suspects a lung infection, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease or Sjögren’s syndrome. The type of tests you get depends on the suspected illness. You may get blood tests, urine tests, X-rays of the chest or sinuses, or other tests.
How long bad breath lasts depends on its cause. For example, when the problem results from poor dental hygiene, proper dental care will begin to freshen the mouth right away. You’ll have even better results after a few days of regular brushing and flossing. Periodontal disease and tooth abscess also respond quickly to proper dental treatment. Bad breath caused by chronic sinusitis may keep coming back, especially if it is caused by a structural abnormality of the sinuses.
Bad breath that results from a systemic illness may be a long-term problem. It often can be controlled with proper medical care.
Bad breath caused by dental problems can be prevented easily with proper home and professional care.
Brushing your teeth, tongue and gums after meals
Rinsing with a mouthwash
Visiting the dentist regularly (at least twice a year) for an exam and tooth cleaning.
You also can combat bad breath by drinking plenty of water every day to help your body make saliva. An occasional swish of the mouth with water can loosen bits of food. Other products can help you keep breath fresh and prevent plaque from forming.
Sugarless breath mints
The treatment of bad breath depends on its cause.
Call your dentist promptly if you have bad breath with loose teeth or painful, swollen gums that bleed easily. Also, call your doctor if you have bad breath along with any of the following symptoms:
Discolored nasal discharge
Cough that produces mucus
Even if you have none of these symptoms, call your dentist or physician if your bad breath continues despite a good diet and proper dental hygiene.
Sometimes bad breath can be a sign that a medical condition needs attention right away. If you have diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or chronic liver or kidney disease, ask your doctor what bad breath may mean for your condition.
Once bad breath has been diagnosed, the outlook for fresh breath is usually excellent if you stick to your dentist’s or physician’s treatment plan.
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