Zubni implanti (zubni implantati) su veštačka zamena za zub koji se koriste da nadoknade gubitak prirodnog zuba. Postupak je kategorisan kao oblik protetske (veštačka zamena) stomatologije, ali takođe spada i u kategoriju estetske stomatologije. 

Dental implants are artificial tooth replacements that are used to counter tooth loss. The procedure is categorized as a form of prosthetic (artificial replacement) dentistry, though it also falls into the category of cosmetic dentistry as well.
Although you have a number of restorative options for the treatment of missing teeth, none have proven to be as functionally effective and durable as implants. In many cases, dental implants may be the only logical choice for the restoration of all necessary functionality of the teeth and supporting structures.

 

 

Strong, durable and natural in appearance, implants are among the most successful dental procedures performed.
Tooth Loss
Teeth are lost because of:
Tooth decay
Root canal failure
Periodontitis (gum disease)
Trauma to the mouth
Excessive wear and tear
Congenital defects
People who have lost teeth might feel too self-conscious to smile or talk. Additionally, biting irregularities caused by tooth loss can have a negative effect on eating habits and this can lead to secondary health problems like malnutrition. Regardless of the nature of problems related to tooth loss, dental implants may provide a simple remedy with proven results.
 
Advantages of Implant Dentistry
Dental implants are stronger and more durable than their restorative counterparts (bridges and dentures). Implants offer a permanent solution to tooth loss. Additionally, implants may be used in conjunction with other restorative procedures for maximum effectiveness. For example, a single implant can serve to support a crown replacing a single missing tooth. Implants can also be used to support a dental bridge for the replacement of multiple missing teeth, and can be used with dentures to increase stability and reduce gum tissue irritation.
Procedural advancements, including the development of narrower “mini” implants, mean that more people than ever before are finding themselves candidates for implantation. However, candidacy for implantation still varies, meaning that your dentist may determine that you should opt for an alternative restoration.
The Dental Implant Procedure
Today’s dental implants are virtually indistinguishable from other teeth. This appearance is aided in part by the structural and functional connection between the dental implant and the living bone. Implants are typically placed in a single sitting but require a period of osseointegration.
Osseointegration is the process by which direct anchorage of a dental implant root and the bone of the jaw occurs. Osseointegrated implants are the most commonly used and successful type of dental implant. An osseointegrated implant takes anywhere from three to six months to anchor and heal, at which point your dentist can complete the procedure with the placement of a crown. Once the implant has anchored with the jawbone, artificial prosthesis may be attached and the process is done. If osseointegration does not occur, the implant will fail.
Detailed procedural steps are as follows:
Preparing the Jaw for Implantation: A dental implant is commonly composed of a titanium material screw and a crown. A small-diameter hole (pilot hole) is drilled at edentulous (where there is no tooth) jaw sites in order to guide the titanium screw that holds a dental implant in place. To avoid damaging vital jaw and face structures like the inferior alveolar nerve in the mandible (lower jaw), a dentist must use great skill and expertise when boring the pilot hole and sizing the jaw bone.
Placement of the Implant: After the initial pilot hole has been drilled into the appropriate jaw site, it is slowly widened to allow for placement of the implant screw. Following this placement, a protective cover screw is placed on top to allow the implant site to heal and the dental implant to anchor (osseointegration). After several months, the protective cover is removed and a temporary crown is placed on top of the dental implant. The temporary crown serves as a template around which the gum grows and shapes itself in a natural way. The process is completed when the temporary crown is replaced with a permanent crown.

Demo video:

Success Rates of Dental Implants
Dental implants are among the most successful procedures in dentistry. There is no guarantee that an implant procedure will be successful, but studies have shown a five-year success rate of 95% for lower jaw implants and 90% for upper jaw implants. The success rate for upper jaw implants is slightly lower because the upper jaw (especially the posterior section) is less dense than the lower jaw, making successful implantation and osseointegration potentially more difficult to achieve.
Dental implants may fail for a number of reasons. The cause is often related to a failure in the osseointegration process. For example, if the implant is placed in a poor position, osseointegration may not take place. Dental implants may break or become infected (like natural teeth) and crowns may become loose.
If you are a smoker who is considering a dental implant, your dentist will likely advise you to give up smoking before undergoing the process because smokers face a higher risk of implant failure. Since the procedure can be extremely expensive, you risk wasting your money on dental implants if you do not give up the habit.
On the plus side, dental implants are not susceptible to the formation of cavities; still, poor oral hygiene can lead to the development of peri-implantitis around dental implants. This disease is tantamount to the development of periodontitis (severe gum disease) around a natural tooth.
Implant Dentistry: New Procedural Strategies
Dentists trained to perform implants, crowns and/or surgery have begun to use a new strategy for the replacement of missing teeth. Dental implants are placed into locations where teeth have recently been extracted. When successful, this new strategy can shed months off of the treatment time associated with dental implants because osseointegration is sped up. Candidacy for this type of early intervention is dependant upon anatomical factors of the extracted tooth site. For example, in many cases the extracted tooth site is wider than the implant, making it impossible to place the implant into the site immediately after extraction. Dental work would have to be performed first in order to create a perfect fit for the implant.
Another strategy for implant placement within narrow spaces is the incorporation of the mini-implant. Mini-implants may be used for small teeth and incisors. Get more information about alternatives to traditional implants by checking out our mini implant section.

 

Sources:

Consumer Guide to Dentistry

Simple Steps to Better Dental Health


Iako postoji veliki broj opcija kojima se može nadomestiti nedostajući zub, nijedna od njih se nije pokazala toliko funkcionalno efikasna i dugotrajna kao implant. U mnogim slučajevima, zubni implant (implantat) može biti jedini logičan izbor za obnovu svih potrebnih funkcija zuba i potpornih struktura.

 

Jaki, izdržljivi i prirodnog izgleda, implanti su među najuspešnijim stomatološkim procedurama do sada.

Gubitak zuba

Zube možete izgubiti zbog:

Zubnog kvara

Kvara zubnog kanala

Paradontopatije (bolesti desni)

Traume usta

Trošenja i habanja

Urođenog defekta

Ljudi koji su izgubili zube mogu osećati nesigurnost da razgovaraju sa drugim ljudima ili da se smeju. Osim toga, nepravilnosti zagrižaja uzrokovane gubitkom zuba mogu imati negativne efekte na prehrambene navike i to može dovesti do sekundarnih zdravstvenih problema kao što je neuhranjenost. Bez obzira na prirodu problema vezanih za gubitak zuba, zubni implanti mogu biti jednostavno rešenje s dokazanim rezultatima.

Pogledajte demonstracioni video:

 

Prednosti zubnih implanta

Zubni implanti su jači i trajniji od njihovih prethodnika (mostova i proteza). Implanti  nude trajno rešenje za gubitak zuba. Osim toga, implanti se mogu koristiti u kombinaciji sa drugim procedurama za postizanje maksimalne efikasnosti. Na primer, jedan pojedinačan implant može poslužiti kao podrška za krunicu zamenjujući nedostajući zub. Implant može koristiti i kao podrška za most zamenjujući više nedostajućih zuba, a može se koristiti i u kombinaciji sa protezom za povećanje stabilnosti i smanjenja iritacije tkiva desni.

Napredak ove procedure, uključujući i razvoj užih „mini“ implanta, znači da je sve više ljudi mogući kandidat za zubne implante. Međutim, odluku o tome da li želite ovakav tretman morate doneti Vi, uz konsultaciju sa svojim stomatologom .

 

Procedura ugradnje zubnih implanta

Današnji zubni implanti su gotovo neprimetni u odnosu na ostale zube. Ovakav izgled potpomognut je činjenicom da je implant strukturno i funkcionalno povezan sa kosti. Implanti se relativno brzo postavljaju, ali je potreban određeni period da se oni integrišu u kost.

Integracija implanta u kost je proces u kojem zubni implant i vilična kost srastaju. Ovakvi integrisani implanti su najčešće korišćena, i veoma uspešna, vrsta zubnih implanta. Implantu je potrebno od tri do šest meseci da se integriše u kost i sraste, nakon čega stomatolog može završiti proceduru postavljanjem krunice.  Ako do srastanja ne dođe, implant neće funkcionisati.

Pogledajte demonstracioni video na engleskom jeziku:

{youtube}_x4nKsnSBr0&feature{/youtube}

 

Detaljni koraci procedure:

Priprema za vilice za implantaciju

Zubni implant se obično sastoji od vijka napravljenog od titanijuma i krunice. Rupa malog promera (pilot rupa) se buši u vilici (na mestu na kom nedostaje zub) koja će služiti da vodi vijak i da implant drži na mestu. Da bi se izbegla oštećenja vitalnih struktura vilice i lica (nervi),  stomatolog mora pokazati veliku spretnost i stručnost prilikom bušenja pilot rupe u viličnoj kosti.

Postavljanje implanta

Nakon bušenja početne pilot rupe na odgovarajućem mestu u vilici, ova mala rupa se polako proširuje kako bi se omogućilo postavljenje vijka implanta u nju. Nakon postavljanja vijka u rupu, na njega se postavlja zaštitni poklopac koji će omogućiti da implant sraste, a mesto intervencije zaleči. Nakon nekoliko meseci, zaštitni poklopac se uklanja i privremena krunica se postavlja na vrh zubnog implanta. Privremene krunice služe kao model po kome desni rastu  i oblikuju se na prirodan način. Postupak je završen kada se privremena krunica zameni trajnom krunicom.

Pogledajte demonstracioni video:

{youtube}vO_IBtaH8P8{/youtube}

 

Procenat uspešnosti ugradnje zubnih implanta

Zubni implanti spadaju među najuspešnije postupke u stomatologiji. Nema garancije da će implantacija biti uspešna, ali istraživanja su pokazala da je petogodišnji procenat uspešnosti 95% za implante donje vilice i 90% za implante gornje vilice. Stopa uspeha za implante gornje vilice je malo niža jer je njena kost manje gusta od donje vilice, što otežava implantaciju i srastanje.

Postavljanje implanta može biti neuspešno iz različitih razloga. Najčešći uzrok je neuspešno srastanje implanta i kosti. Na primer, ako je implant je smešten u pogrešan položaj, srastanje se neće dogoditi. Zubni implant se  može polomiti ili inficirati (kao i prirodni zub) i krunice mogu postati klimave.

Ako ste pušač, a razmišljate o postavljanju implanta, Vaš stomatolog će verojatno savetovati da pre postavljanja implanta prestanete s pušenjem, jer pušači imaju veći rizik od neuspeha ove procedure. Budući da ovaj postupak može biti veoma skup, ukoliko ne odustanete od ove navike može se desiti da će implanti biti samo bacanje novca.

Dobra strana je to da zubni implanti nisu podložni kvarenju kao prirodni zubi. Ipak, loša oralna higijena može dovesti do razvoja bolesti desni oko zubnog implanta.

Stomatologija implanta: Nove strategije

Stomatolozi osposobljeni za obavljanje postavljanja implanta, su počeli koristiti nove strategije za zamenu nedostajućih zuba. Zubni implant se postavlja na mesto gde je zub nedavno izvađen. Kada uspe, ova nova strategija može uštedeti mesece potrebne za završetak procedure, jer se srastanje implanta sa kosti ubrzava. Mogućnosti za ovu vrstu rane intervencije zavise od anatomskih karakteristika mesta na kome je izvađen zub. Na primer, u mnogim slučajevima ova rupa je šira od one potrebne za postavljanje implanta, čineći nemogućim da implant postavite odmah nakon vađenja zuba. Zbog toga je često potrebna takva prethodna procedura koja će omogućiti da se ova rupa učini pogodnom za postavljanje implanta.

Druga strategija je postavljanje mini implanta na mestima koja su suviše uska. Mini implanti su veoma korisni za zamenu malih zuba i popunjavanje manjih praznina između zuba.

 

Izvori:

Consumer Guide to Dentistry

Simple Steps to Better Dental Health